The CDS is a 40-item, self-assessment of cognitive distortions for adults ages 18 years and older. The CDS scales reflect five types of cognitive distortion: Self-Criticism (SC)–Low self-esteem and self-devaluation as expressed in the tendency to criticize or devalue oneself. Self-Blame (SB) is–Extent to which the respondent blames himself or herself for negative, unwanted events in his or her life, including events outside the respondent’s control. Helplessness (HLP)–Perception of being unable to control important aspects of one’s life. Hopelessness (HOP) is–Extent to which the respondent believes that the future is bleak and that he or she is destined to fail. Preoccupation With Danger (PWD)–Tendency to view the world, especially the interpersonal domain, as a dangerous place.