Cognitive Distortion Scales (CDS)
The CDS is a 40-item, self-assessment of cognitive distortions for adults ages 18 years and older. The CDS scales reflect five types of cognitive distortion: Self-Criticism (SC)--Low selfesteem and self-devaluation as expressed in the tendency to criticize or devalue oneself. Self- Blame (SB)--Extent to which the respondent blames himself or herself for negative, unwanted events in his or her life, including events outside the respondent's control. Helplessness (HLP)-- Perception of being unable to control important aspects of one's life. Hopelessness (HOP)--Extent to which the respondent believes that the future is bleak and that he or she is destined to fail. Preoccupation With Danger (PWD)--Tendency to view the world, especially the interpersonal domain, as a dangerous place.
||CDS Professional Manual, 25 Test Booklets, and 25 Profile Forms
||18 - 91 yrs
||10 - 15 minutes to administer; 5 minutes to score